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CAREER PLANNING FOR THE 21st CENTURY

TECHNOLOGY – ADDITIVE (3D) MANUFACTURING

INTRODUCTION

Additive Manufacturing (often referred to as 3D-Printing) is the technology that builds 3D objects by adding layer-upon-layer of material (which may be plastic, metal, concrete, glass or human tissue), under the control of 3D modeling software. It  is used for rapid prototyping and direct digital manufacturing. Besides learning to work with different materials and layering techniques, current research includes varying the location of the x-y axis to change the physical properties of the product, and introducing a time dimension in which the properties of the material used will change with time, sometimes with the addition of heat (4D-printing). The technology was initially invented in Japan in 1981. Get more details

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3D-printing for residential is market-ready: Germany's first building is under construction (Construction/Homebuilding - 2020-10 - ArchDaily)

The first 3D-printed residential building in Germany is undergoing construction in Beckum, North Rhine-Westphalia. The two-story printed detached house with approx. 80 sq.m. of living space per floor is using a recently-approved construction technique put into practice in Germany for the first time.

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Adidas adds automated weaving robot to shoe 3D printing technology (Manufacturing/Shoes - 2020-10 - 3DPrint)

Adidas’s Futurecraft line has included several 3D-printed midsoles over the past several years. The latest pair of sneakers includes soft uppers made using an autonomous weaving robot.

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NASA to 3D-print future rocket engines (Space - 2020-09 - InterestingEngineering)

The project, ‘Rapid Analysis and Manufacturing Propulsion Technology’ is seeking to engineer an additive manufacturing technique for producing 3D-printed rocket engine parts using metal powder and lasers. The novel method, called blown powder directed energy deposition, comes with many advantages including reduced costs and lead times.

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Europe’s biggest 3D printer helps create an entire two-story house (Construction/Homebuilding - 2020-07 - Digital Trends)

In Belgium, Europe’s largest 3D printer (32’ x32’) was recently used to print the shell of an entire two-storey house. The roof and windows were then added.

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Roombots: Modular robots that become Adaptive Furniture (Manufacturing/Furniture - 2020-04 - Forbes)

Biorobotics Laboratory researchers at the Ecole Polytechnique Federal de Lausanne in Switzerland have created a group of modular shape-changing robots called Roombots that are 3D reconfigurable to change shapes and become adaptive furniture.

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3D-printed models help juries understand technical evidence in court cases (Law/Forensics - 2020-03 - Technology.org)

A Cranfield Forensic Institute study using mock jurors has found that using 3D-printed models when presenting evidence in court cases improved the jury’s understanding of technical language by 12%. 3D forensic documentation captures an entire crime scene before the site is compromised.

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Creating tiny but detailed 3D objects in seconds (2020-02 - Gizmodo)

EPFL researchers from Lausanne, Switzerland, are bombarding a vat of resin, or other photosensitive materials such as biological gels, with multiple lasers coming from several directions at the same time. By carefully controlling the direction of the beams and their intensity, a 3D model materializes in about 30 seconds.

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All shopping will be done at home as the retail industry is transformed - and shopping malls will become extinct (Retail - 2019-12 - Singularity Hub)

Virtual reality, augmented reality, and 3D printing are converging with AI, drones, and 5G to transform shopping on every dimension. Shopping is becoming virtual and customized, with fast delivery and lower costs. All shopping will be done at home with the help of a virtual assistant. This will be a top-to-bottom transformation of the retail world. The article contains an example of shopping for a dress in 2029.

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A community of 50 3D-printed homes is under construction in Mexico (Construction/Homebuilding - 2019-12 - Singularity Hub)

Housing nonprofit, New Story, announced construction of their first community of 50 3D-printed homes, in Mexico’s southern state of Tabasco, of which 2 have been completed. The 500 sq.ft. houses have two bedrooms, a living room, kitchen, and bathroom. House frames are printed in about 24 hours, using a Vulcan II printer. They are intended for families currently living in makeshift shelters, who have a US$76.50 monthly income.

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The first 3D-printed boat, 'built' by the world's largest 3D printer (Manufacturing/Boatbuilding - 2019-11 - Singularity Hub)

In October, the University of Maine’s Advanced Structures & Composites Center revealed a 25-foot, 5,000-pound boat that set new records for the world’s largest solid 3D-printed object. It was printed in 3 days by the largest prototype polymer 3D printer belt.

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Glass structures produced by a 3D-printer (Manufacturing/Glass - 2019-11 - Technology.org)

Researchers from ETH Zurich have used a new technique, based on stereolithography, to produce complex glass objects with 3D-printing.

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3D-Printing everything: Ultra-cheap, zero-waste products are coming (2019-10 - Singularity Hub)

3D-printing is about to transform manufacturing, decimating waste, shrinking time to market, and harnessing never-before-used materials. Making jet engines, apartment complexes, circuit boards and prosthetic limbs – and in use in the International Space Station.

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The need to protect 3D-printed products from counterfeiting (Medicine - 2019-10 - Technology.org)

The problem with 3D-printing is that, although it provides a string of advantages to the legitimate manufacturers, it also provides the same kind of benefit to the counterfeiters, making it extremely difficult to separate counterfeit designs from legitimate ones.

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These 3D-printed houses are made with on-site soil, along with bits of rice, and hydraulic lime (Construction/Homebuilding - 2019-10 - TechRadar)

Houses are built in 2 days with the Crane WASP 3D-printer, which constructs the eco-abodes on-site using 25% soil from the ground, and 40% straw and chopped rice, 25% rice husk, and 10% hydraulic lime. An example is a house made with raw earth measuring 21.6’ in diameter, and standing 9.8’ tall.

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3D-printing, vertical farming, and materials science are overhauling food production (Agriculture/Food Production - 2019-10 - Singularity Hub)

The food 3D-printing industry is expected to grow at 50% annually. Today’s breakthroughs will soon allow us to boost food production by nearly 70%, using a fraction of the real estate and resources. 3D-printed meals will be customized to individual medical records. Vertical farming that relies on hydroponics and aeroponics, will allow crops to be grown with 90% less water than traditional agriculture.

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A Six Million Dollar Man: Turning fiction into reality (Medicine - 2019-07 - Technology.org)

Designing an effective surgical instrument requires multiple prototypes in stainless steel, each costing $5-10,000, and taking weeks to produce. With 3D printing, prototypes cost about $100 each, and are completed within days.

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3D printing and robots power world's largest furniture maker (Manufacturing/Furniture - 2019-05 - ZDNet)

The world’s largest furniture manufacturer, Ashley Furniture, is using robotics and 3D-printing to expand production in a shrinking labor market, achieving 10% more business with almost 15% less labor.

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5 big breakthroughs to expect in 3D-printing (2019-04 - Singularity Hub)

1. 3D-printing speeds will increase by 50-100 times.
2. 3D-printed homes will offer cheaper, environmentally-friendly alternatives to traditional housing.
3. 3D-printed meat, using plant-based proteins, will provide a sustainable solution to feeding the world’s growing population.
4. Metal 3D printers will overtake plastics.
5. Smart 3D printers with natural language processing, AI-powered generative design, and customization abilities will allow for seamless design engineering.

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Researchers create first ever 3D-printed heart using human tissue (Medicine/Organ Replacement - 2019-04 - Futurism)

Scientists at Tel Aviv University have 3D-printed a small heart using human tissue that includes vessels, collagen, and biological molecules — a breakthrough that they hope could one day render organ donation obsolete.

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There will soon be a whole community of ultra-low-cost 3D-printed homes (Construction/Homebuilding - 2019-03 - Fast Company)

The “Vulcan II,” a massive, 33×11 ft machine can 3D-print the concrete frame of a small house in less than a day. Adding a conventional roof, windows, and utilities can be completed a day later. It will be printing a neighborhood of >50 homes in 2019.

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Big Area Additive Manufacturing technology can rapidly manufacture molds suitable for precast concrete manufacturing (Construction/Concrete - 2019-03 - Technology.org)

Researchers at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are using Big Area Additive Manufacturing (‘BAAM’) technology to manufacture molds suitable for precast concrete manufacturing. The molds use carbon fiber reinforced acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), a common thermoplastic compounded with chopped carbon fibers. Each mold takes up to 19 hours to make. A Brooklyn tower is the first building to use the molds.

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Automated machine learning technology used to improve additive manufacturing (Manufacturing - 2019-02 - STRN)

Researchers at Purdue U. and USC have developed automated machine learning technology to help improve additive manufacturing by ensuring that parts fit more precisely, and assembly needs less testing and time.

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3D-printing could be 100 times faster using light (Manufacturing - 2019-01 - Technology.org)

University of Michigan researchers created a new approach to 3D-printing that lifts complex shapes from a vat of liquid at <100 times faster than current processes, using 2 lights to control where the resin hardens—and where it stays fluid. This enables the resin to be solidified in more sophisticated patterns.

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New high-speed laser 3D-printing method creates objects in one pass (Manufacturing - 2019-01 - Technology.org)

Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and UC, Berkeley have developed a new high-speed 3D-printing method (Computed Axial Lithography) which uses projected photons to illuminate the syrup-like resin, creating a continuously shifting video of projections as the vial rotates. Most builds take several minutes to complete, many times faster than existing polymer 3D-printing techniques.

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People will be living in 3D-printed homes in 2019 (Additive Manufacturing - 2018-12 - Architectural Digest)

The world’s first 3D-concrete-printed homes, fully outfitted with multiple rooms, will be built in 2019 in Eindhoven, Holland. The homes will first come in single-story units, with multi-level homes to be built shortly thereafter. A special concrete composition, which does not need steel reinforcements, was developed for the printers.

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The most amazing 3D-printing projects of 2018 (Additive Manufacturing - 2018-12 - MIT Technology Review)

The 6 3D-printing projects are: A steel pedestrian bridge (for Amsterdam); Concrete homes; BMW’s millionth component since 2010 (a window guide rail for the BMW i8 Roadster); The Refabricator (turning old plastic items into filament for printers); Self-tracking plastic objects (transmitting usage information); and Weddings (including a bouquet).

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Building a Moon Base using 3D manufacturing and moon resources (Additive Manufacturing - 2018-11 - Technology.org)

The European Space Agency is leading a project to come up with ways to make a Moon Base more feasible. Potentially, everything from building materials to solar panels, equipment and tools to clothes, and even nutrients and food ingredients, could be 3D-printed on the Moon.

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Fashion designers using 3D software to create prototypes, and halve time from design to store shelf (Additive Manufacturing - 2018-10 - Wtop)

Clothes and shoe designers are sketching on high-resolution tablets, and emailing 3-D renderings straight to factories. The goal is to reduce the time it takes to get to store shelves from a year to six months or less.

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3D-printing cells to produce human tissue (Additive Manufacturing - 2018-10 - Technology.org)

University of Utah biomedical engineers have developed a method to 3-D-print cells to produce human tissue such as ligaments and tendons, a process that will greatly improve a patient’s recovery.

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3D bioprinting technique could create artificial blood vessels and organ tissue (Additive Manufacturing - 2018-10 - Technology.org)

City University of Boulder engineers have developed a 3D-printing technique that allows for localized control of an object’s firmness, opening up new biomedical avenues that could one day include artificial arteries and organ tissue. The layer-by-layer printing method features fine-grain, programmable control over rigidity, allowing researchers to mimic the complex geometry of blood vessels that are highly structured and yet must remain pliable.

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Apple patent shows new way to create 3D printed models (Additive Manufacturing - 2018-10 - TechCrunch)

A patent filed by Apple amd approved in October 2018 shows a new method to print 3D models using triangular tessellation. The method breaks smooth surfaces into little triangles that approximate the shape of the original model.

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The first 3D-printed steel bridge has been completed (Additive Manufacturing - 2018-10 - MIT Technology Review)

MX3D is 3D-printing a fully-functional stainless steel bridge to cross a canal in Amsterdam.

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Robots used for pre and post processing of 3D-printing (Additive Manufacturing - 2018-10 - Metal AM)

Swedish start-up Digital Metal is launching a fully-automated production system, using 3D-printing with robots performing pre and post production functions.

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Hybrid additive manufacturing machines integrate 3D-printing with CNC processing for metal products (Additive Manufacturing - 2018-10 - Technology.org)

Hybrid additive manufacturing machines integrate layer-by-layer building with traditional CNC (Computerized Numerical Control) processing and laser cladding for metal products.

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3D-printed bones are helping doctors prepare for surgeries (Additive Manufacturing - 2018-10 - Technology.org)

Orthopaedic surgeons are using scans of actual patient anatomy to 3D-print model bones on which to plan and practice procedures.

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HP launches Metal Jet 3D printing (Additive Manufacturing - 2018 - 09 - TechRepublic)

Hewlett Packard launched its HP Metal Jet 3D printing technology, designed to deliver mechanically functional parts faster than current systems with the aim of revamping factory production for auto, industrial and healthcare companies. Initial metal focus will be stainless steel.

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US Marine Corps Systems Command used a 3D printer to construct a concrete barracks measuring 500 sq ft in 40 hours (Additive Manufacturing - 2018 - 09 - New Atlas)

The US Marine Corps Systems Command constructed a 500 sq ft prototype concrete barracks in 40 hours with one of the world’s largest 3D printer. (If soldiers receive a safe barracks in a shorter time, it could potentially save lives.) It normally takes 10 Marines five days to construct a similar hut out of wood.

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Volkswagen is becoming the first manufacturer to use 3D printing for series production parts (Additive Manufacturing - 2018 - 09 - Technology.org)

A Volkswagen car has 6,000-8,000 manufactured parts. Volkswagen became the first automotive manufacturer to use the HP Metal Jet 3D-printing technology suitable for mass production.

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3D-printed bionic eye prototype could one day restore sight (Additive Manufacturing - 2018-08 - ZDNet)

Researchers from the University of Minnesota have used 3D-printing technologies to create light receptors on a hemispherical surface, a “significant step” towards the creation of synthetic eyes which could either restore sight for the blind or improve levels of sight for the visually impaired.

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Netherlands building world's first habitable 3D printed houses and cycle bridges (Additive Manufacturing - 2018-08 - The Guardian)

Offered because of a shortage of skilled bricklayers, the Dutch city Eindhoven is building concrete, habitable homes made by a 3D printer. Designs can be customized to whatever shape a purchaser wants. Foundations are conventional. Five houses will be rented in 2019. A 3D-printed cycle bridge was built in 2017.

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Bugatti, HP, Frito-Lay, and Chanel use 3D-printing for prototyping (Additive Manufacturing - 2018-08 - MIT Technology Review)

3D-printing is now part of the entire product life cycle. Frito-Lay uses the lowest-cost printers to print prototype potato chip geometries; Bugatti and Chanel 3-D-print their final products. MIT’s lab has made substantial progress in improving printing speed.

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3D-Printing to disrupt medical implants industry (Additive Manufacturing - 2018 - 07 - Technology.org)

Advances in 3D printers, materials and other technology have enabled manufacturers to design and deliver custom-made, high-resolution 3D-printed implants on patient demand.

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4D-printed products programmed to change shapes (Additive Manufacturing - 2018 - 07 - Fast Company)

MIT’s Self-Assembly Lab has perfected the use of super-stretchy, 100% silicone rubber, 4D-printing it into air chambers that can be programmed to inflate and deflate at certain times,

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Multi-dimensional printing allows bicycles to be manufactured at your local bike shop (Additive Manufacturing - 2018- 07 - Fast Company)

The Silicon Valley start-up, Arevo, is 3D-printing samples of its first generation of bikes. A custom robot prints the company’s carbon fiber-embedded material using a multi-dimensional, environmentally-friendly process that makes them strong. The bikes will be in mass production in 2019.

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Netherlands building world's first habitable 3D printed houses and cycle bridges (Additive Manufacturing - 2018-06 - The Guardian)

Offered because of a shortage of skilled bricklayers, the Dutch city Eindhoven is building concrete, habitable homes made by a 3D printer. Designs can be customized to whatever shape a purchaser wants. Foundations are conventional. Five houses will be rented in 2019. A 3D-printed cycle bridge was built in 2017.

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Bugatti, HP, Frito-Lay, and Chanel use 3D-printing for prototyping (Additive Manufacturing - 2018-06 - MIT Technology Review)

3D-printing is now part of the entire product life cycle. Frito-Lay uses the lowest-cost printers to print prototype potato chip geometries; Bugatti and Chanel 3-D-print their final products. MIT’s lab has made substantial progress in improving printing speed.

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Researchers design 3-D-printed, driverless boats that can self-assemble into other floating structures (Additive Manufacturing/Autonomous Vehicles - 2018-05 - MIT News)

MIT researchers have designed a fleet of autonomous boats that offer high maneuverability and precise control. The boats can also be rapidly 3-D printed using a low-cost printer. The boats — rectangular 4-by-2-meter hulls equipped with sensors, microcontrollers, GPS modules, and other hardware — could be programmed to self-assemble into floating bridges or concert stages in a matter of hours.

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The 3 industries kickstarting the 3D-printing revolution (Additive Manufacturing - 2018-05 - TechRepublic)

Over $13 billion was spent on 3D-printing from 2014-17, with $280 billion estimated in the next 10 years. The three industries kickstarting the revolution: Aviation/aerospace, Healthcare, and Energy.

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Researchers 3D-print electronics and cells directly on skin (Additive Manufacturing - 2018-05 - Technology.org)

University of Minnesota researchers used a customized, low-cost 3D printer to print electronics on a real hand for the first time – Useful e.g. to print temporary sensors to detect chemical or biological agents or solar cells to charge essential electronics. They also printed biological cells on the skin wound of a mouse, leading to new medical treatments for wound healing and skin grafting.

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Self-assembling materials that can be printed inexpensively and shipped flat (Additive Manufacturing - 2018-04 - ZDNet)

Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University have created a process that allows plastic printed with a cheap 3D-printer to fold itself into predetermined shapes with the application of heat. The material may one day be used to produce flat-pack products that can be assembled quickly with a heat gun.

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New 4D printer could reshape the world we live in (Additive Manufacturing - 2018-04 - Technology.org)

In 2017, scientists at Georgia Institute of Technology and the Singapore University of Technology and Design used a composite made from an acrylic and an epoxy along with a commercial printer and a heat source to create 4-D objects, such as a flower that can close its petals. They have now developed a powerful printer that could streamline the creation of self-assembling structures that can change shape after being exposed to heat and other stimuli, accelerating the use of 4-D printing in aerospace, medicine, and other industries. The printer can use different materials to create hard and soft components at the same time, incorporating conductive wiring directly into shape-changing structures.

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This House Can Be 3D-Printed For $4,000 (Additive Manufacturing - 2018-03 - Fast Company)

New Story, a Silicon Valley-based nonprofit, which builds housing in the developing world, has invented a truck-mounted, massive 3D-printer that will extrude a 4-room, 6-800 sq.ft., single-story house in less than a day, using local materials, for less than US$4,000.

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3D-printed customized racing sleds for each US Olympic luge athlete (Entertainment - Olympics - 2018-02 - TechRepublic)

The US Olympic luge team is going for gold with the help of 3D printing at the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, South Korea. Athletes are using customized 3D-printed racing sleds from Stratasys, tailored to their individual bodies.

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